History of Tamales
This blog has been prepared for guests of Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast inn- Santa Fe. In response to the popularity of our New Mexico red chile pork tamales served hot daily for breakfast. We hope you enjoy the History of the Tamale!!
“Tamale” is derived from the word tamalii an Aztec word meaning “wrapped food”. Though we are not certain when or who invented the tamale, we do know tamales were written about since pre-Columbian days. Aztecs served Spaniard soldiers tamales during visits to Mexico in the 1550’s. Tamales were eaten by soldiers on long sojourns into Mexico as tamales are portable and easy to heat.
Tamales have been eaten in the United States since at least 1893 when they were featured at the World’s Columbian Exposition. A tradition of roving tamale sellers was documented in early 20th-century in blue/ragtime music song “They’re Red Hot” by Robert Johnson.
While Mexican-style and other Latin American-style tamales are featured at ethnic restaurants throughout the United States, Pueblo Bonito b&b inn- Santa Fe proudly features our traditional New Mexico red chile pork tamale! A distinctly indigenous tribute to New Mexico culture, tradition and cuisine.
Tamales typically are not made every day, as they once were, as they are very labor intensive. Rather you find tamales being made for special occasions like the Day of the Dead, Christmas, Native American Feast Days, New Year’s or just about any other family or holiday celebration. Tamale making is usually a family affair! Traditionally family members gather together and make fillings and masa the day before. Day 2 creates an assembly line- family of all ages form to spread the masa on corn husks, fill and fold the tamales. Once the tamales are assembled, they are steamed and finally eaten. Usually hundreds of tamales are made at once so everyone can take some home and share with friends and family. Guests of Pueblo Bonito, though not required to create the tamale, are warmly invited to our tables to share as friends in this delectable tradition of hospitality- enjoy!
Fetish carvings and Native American symbolism found frequently on crafts items like pottery, jewelry, bead or leather work, paintings, carvings, etc are part of an ancient culture and religion which is extremely complex. Zuni fetishes, known to the Shiwi people as wemawe, are small stone animal carvings made by talented artisans of the Zuni Pueblo. Due to the remote location in Northwest New Mexico, the Zuni people have been able to retain a great deal of their culture and religion despite being among the most studied Native American people by anthropologists, past and present. It is my experience that though Native American culture and tradition can differ between tribes/sects, there are many agreed to meanings of the symbols found throughout the craft works, etc. Inn at Pueblo Bonito features several Native American Artisans from local NM Pueblos- two of which are Marilyn Ray (Acoma) and Vera Tenorio (Santo Domingo). Well known and respected artisans within their Pueblo cultures- each proudly carry on ancestral traditions of craftsmanship and storytelling. The following should provide some insight as to meanings of Native American symbols, Native American fetishes, and materials used in their artwork.
Native American Symbolism Guide
Bears: symbolizes physical strength, leadership and is known as the “first helper”.
Bear Paws: are a symbol representing inner strength.
Feathers: symbols of prayers, marks of honor or sources of ideas. They represent a Creative Force.
Kokopelli: a common fertility symbol thought to bring fertility to women drawn to his flute playing. He also represents the spirit of music.
Eagle: Master of sky; carrier of prayers. Admired for bravery and special connections to the creator.
Buffalo: Spiritual protector bringing nourishment to body & soul. A White Buffalo symbolizes peace.
Dream Catcher: It is believed the web tangles bad dreams & prevents them from passing through. Good dreams slip through the center. Each morning sunlight purifies the web of bad dreams.
Arrowhead: Represents the hunter and symbolizes the adventurer within each of us.
Zuni Bear: The Guardian of the Earth. A heart-line arrow going from head to heart symbolizes a warrior’s heart is strong like the bear’s.
Native American Stone Meanings
CORAL: is known to be very soothing and very protective. It is of an organic origin, being the skeletal remains of marine animals called Coral Polyps. Colonies of these tiny creatures build branching structures as they grow, gradually forming reefs and atolls.
TURQUOISE: It is believed that turquoise tends to bring good fortune, strength and helps overcome illness. Turquoise got its name from the Levantine traders called Turks who brought the stone to Europe from Persia via Turkey centuries ago. Native Americans have prized turquoise since the time of the Aztecs, who mined it in New Mexico. The natural variations that occur in turquoise are part of their appeal and beauty.
RUBY: A gemstone, ruby is thought to speed the healing of body, mind and spirit. It is believed to aid in psychic development while it energizes. It’s a good stone for just about everyone.
LAPIS: Lapis is the perfect stone for wisdom and fortitude. It is also believed to be an excellent stone for decision makers. It helps increase psychic ability.
OPAL: Most people know Opal for it’s distinctive play of color, it is semi-transparent solidified mineral composed of silicon and water, and it gets its name from the Latin word “Oplus” meaning precious stone. Opal is October’s birthstone. It is believed to release self-consciousness allowing spontaneous action, and awakens one’s psychic and mystical qualities.
ONYX: It is a semi-precious gemstone, and it is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Onyx is also known to be a calming stone. Native Americans believe it collects negative energy from you while wearing it.
MALACHITE: It is famous for its radial banding and deep green color. Popular today for use in Southwestern Indian jewelry, malachite was also popular in the past with the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was worn as a good luck charm to keep away danger and illness. It is believed to balance and stabilize ones emotions.
TIGER”S EYE: Also called Tigers eye or Tiger eye is a chatoyant gemstone. Tiger Eye stone contains a golden yellow reflection on a brown ground color. The most important source of tiger eye is South Africa, but it is also found in California. Native American Indians believe it conveys courage and protection.
PEARLS: Pearls are known to stabilize and balance emotions. They are believed to help your body in using calcium better. For Native Americans pearls are full of purity and integrity.
RHODOCHROSITE: A mineral mined in the U.S., rhodochrosite is known to strengthen self- identity; helps heal deep emotional trauma and balances with a loving vibration. JET: It is an organic gemstone which was highly popular during the reign of Queen Victoria. It has been traditionally fashioned into rosaries for monks. In the U.S. long necklaces of jet beads were very popular during the 1920s, or Roaring Twenties, when women and young flappers would wear multiple strands of jet beads stretching from the neckline to the waistline. Today it is used to beautify Native American Indian jewelry.
Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast inn- Santa Fe, NM proudly features both of these talented Native American Artists and their crafts in our gift gallery. Unique and culturally different New Mexico locally crafted gifts- perfect for gift giving. Valentines is coming up…..why not consider giving the gift of travel and experience our unique historic adobe pueblo-style downtown Santa Fe Bed Breakfast. Book Now and experience a one-of-a-kind New Mexico lodging experience! Give us a call 1-800-461-4599 and allow us to assist you. www.pueblobonitoinn.com
Okay folks… you asked for it! Needless to say, we receive numerous inquiries about green chile… how to make it; how to cook it; how to store it; how to roast it; how to peel it; etc. So due to popular request, we have provided some basic information for our beloved chile lover guests who want to know! Enjoy- COMPLIMENTS OF INN AT PUEBLO BONITO- SANTA FE
CHILE 101: PREPARATION, HANDLING AND STORING NEW MEXICO CHILE
Chile – both Red and Green – are essential ingredients in traditional New Mexican cooking. Of course, one can buy already prepped and ready to go chile, but Santa Fe chefs know chile taste better when prepared in season and fresh. Doing it yourself not only is more economical, but it’s fun too! An experience of authentic New Mexico culture and history. Below is everything you need to know to become a “chile pro”. Go ahead, take your New Mexico cooking to the next level!
Perfect Chile Roasting 101:
ROASTING FRESH NEW MEXICO CHILES AT HOME
- It’s easy! Roast fresh New Mexico chile pods in an oven; on top of a gas stove; or on an outdoor grill!
- Begin with New Mexico grown green chiles- they are the most frequently roasted! About twenty minutes for oven roasting putting a single layer of green chile on baking sheet. Blister chile at 450° F (blackening skins in many spots) and turn as needed for uniformed scorching or until chiles collapse.
- If roasting just a few green pods, hold with tongs over flame of a gas burner for a few minutes. Turn to blacken all over, or use an asador (wire-mesh griddle).
- If using a gas or charcoal grill, place green chile on grate over hot fire, searing all sides- about ten minutes.
- Roast fresh red pods the same ways, but because of their higher moisture content, keep from blistering and blackening as fully as green. Judge their readiness by looking for loosening skin with deep brown shades.
STEAM AND PEEL FRESH NEW MEXICO CHILES
After roasting red or green chile, steam pods immediately to loosen skins.
- Place pods in a Ziploc plastic bag or covered bowl. Let sit five to ten minutes until cool enough to handle.
- Peeling quantities of chiles, require rubber gloves! Avoid capsaicin (substance that gives the pods heat) getting onto your hands- it doesn’t wash off easily and can irritate skin.
- Strip off the outer skin or peel. If tempted to run water over chiles to help in the process (some peel is bound to stick)- Don’t do it! As this will dilutes the flavor. Instead, rinse gloved hands under running water.
- Remove all stems and seeds unless plans include stuffing chiles. In this case, leave the stem and any seeds still attached to avoid weakening the pod.
GREEN CHILE SAUCE RECIPE: Servings: 4 cups
Green chile sauce is an essential ingredient in New Mexican recipes. Green chile sauce can be frozen- so feel free to be creative and smother any/all meats, eggs, pasta, etc with this highly popular accompaniment! This green chile sauce will be a welcomed treat packing a punch of flavor and spice to any dish. If planning ahead, remember this keeps for 3 days refrigerated otherwise it freezes well!
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- ½ to 1 medium onion, chopped fine
- 2 to 3 garlic cloves, minced
- 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour
- 2 cups chopped roasted New Mexican green chile, fresh or thawed frozen
- 2 cups chicken or beef stock
- ½ teaspoon salt, or more to taste
- Warm the oil in a heavy saucepan over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and sauté until the onion is soft and translucent, about 5 minutes.
- Stir in the flour and continue cooking for another 1 or 2 minutes.
- Mix in the chile. Immediately begin pouring in the stock, stirring as you go, then add the salt.
- Bring the mixture to a boil. Reduce the heat to a low simmer and cook for about 15 minutes, until thickened but still very pourable. Use warm or refrigerate for later use.
RED CHILE SAUCE RECIPE:
Another staple in New Mexican cooking! Use red sauce in enchiladas, burritos, tamales, or smothered on top of basically anything. This sauce will keep up to 6 days refrigerated and freezes well.
Servings: 4 cups
- Toast dried whole chile pods in a heavy skillet over medium heat until they are warm and release their fragrance, 1 to 2 minutes per side.
- Remove the chiles from the skillet immediately. When cool enough to handle, break each chile pod into several pieces (wearing rubber or plastic gloves if your skin is sensitive), discarding the stem and seeds.
- Place half the chile pieces in a blender and pour in one-half of the water or stock. Puree until mostly smooth but with a few flecks of chile still visible in the liquid.
- Warm the oil in a large saucepan over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic, and sauté several minutes until the onion is limp.
- Pour in the blended chile mixture, then add oregano and salt.
- Puree the remaining chiles with the remaining water and pour it into the sauce in the pan. Reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer for a total of 20 to 25 minutes.
- After about 15 minutes, taste the sauce and adjust seasonings. When ready, the sauce will be cooked down enough to coat a spoon thickly but still drop off of it easily. Use warm or refrigerate for later use.
- 8 ounces (about 20 to 25) dried whole red New Mexican chile pods, mild, medium, hot, or a combination
- 4 cups water or chicken stock (divided use)
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- 1 medium onion, minced
- 3 garlic cloves, minced
- 1 to 2 teaspoons crumbled dried Mexican oregano, or marjoram
- 1 teaspoon salt, or more to taste
Anytime of year is an excellent time to visit Santa Fe, New Mexico! Foods, flavors, colors, clear skies, world class museums, art, culture, skiing and so much more! But the Fall- October, November are Chile harvest times! Fresh Chile is abundant. Then December while New Mexicans are preparing for Holidays- chiles are plentiful in local markets. Rejenos, tamales, stews, posole are local traditional favorites. Inn at Pueblo Bonito features the BEST Red Chile Pork Tamales in the State of New Mexico every morning for breakfast- all year round! So, we invite you to travel to Santa Fe, New Mexico and feast on our local cuisine featuring the beloved red or green chile. You won’t be sorry! Give us a call 1-800-461-4599 if we can be of assistance. We’d love to host you on your next historic Santa Fe vacation get away! Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast Santa Fe!
Whether a first time or multiple Santa Fe visitor, there are endless reasons for returning to New Mexico’s premier travel destination and Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast inn. Numerous traditional, diverse and unique experiences await Santa Fe travelers which can include – but are not limited to: Art, Art and More World Class Art; Galleries; Markets; Festivals; Opera; Chamber Music; Restaurants; Skiing Santa Fe; Canyon Rd; Shopping the Plaza; Hiking National Parks; Native American History and Culture; Color changing of Aspens; and so many more – it’s impossible to list them all!
To enhance popular suggestions for Santa Fe Travelers, we add the art of native New Mexico cuisine and offer two current Santa Fe Travel suggestions to consider this fall, winter and holiday season:
Walking distance from Inn at Pueblo Bonito – Santa Fe in downtown is the relatively new Savory Spice Shop. Savory Spice Shop offers a new culinary option focusing on seasonal harvest items and spices in a unique cooking environment. Classes include canning, pickling and general spicing up your cooking life are available. Current cooking class offerings as of the publication of this blog are as follows:
Wednesday, September 23rd at 6:00: Spice 101: Learn World Food through Spices! Explore the world of food through different spices while enjoy dinner and learning information on over 100 different spices. Perfect class for novices and experts delving into history, flavor profiles, and uses. Great information to take home and apply to any cuisine!
Sunday, September 27th at 4:30pm: Seafood! Seafood! Seafood!
Learn to make two scrumptious spicy seafood meals -Sesame Coconut Shrimp with Zesty Asian Slaw and Seared Tuna with Wasabi Cream and Singapore Noodle Salad. To die for!
For additional Savory Spice Shop class offerings please check out their blog post or Call (505) 819-5659.
Approximately one mile from Inn at Pueblo Bonito- Santa Fe’s doorstep, is Santa Fe School of Cooking. Four fundamental classes on traditional New Mexico foods are the heart of Santa Fe School of Cooking. Experience delicious local cuisine as well as local cooking techniques and lore of the region. Warm, spicy tastes and enticing aromas evoke Santa Fe’s rich cultural traditions. Please register directly at Santa Fe School of Cooking.
Traditional New Mexican I (Trad I):
This class includes: corn tortillas, cheese enchiladas with red chile sauce, chicken enchiladas with green chile sauce, pinto beans, posole, and capirotada (bread pudding). Demonstration Class, 3-hours.
September 17, 2015 – 10:00am
October 31, 2015 – 10:00am
November 24, 2015 – 10:00am
December 21, 2015 – 10:00am
Traditional New Mexican II (Trad II):
To include: flour tortillas, carne adovada (red chile marinated pork), chile rellenos, calabacitas (green chile, squash, corn), refritos, and sopapillas. Demonstration Class, 3-hours.
September 22, 2015 – 10:00am
October 13, 2015 – 10:00am
December 04, 2015 – 10:00am
December 29, 2015 – 10:00am
Traditional New Mexican III (Trad III):
To include: Classic New Mexican green chile stew, blue corn and green chile muffins, piñon butter, quesadillas, salsa fresca and rich natillas. Demonstration Class, 3-hours.
October 10, 2015 – 10:00am
November 12, 2015 – 10:00am
Traditional New Mexican IV (Trad IV):
A “new” class highlighting traditional New Mexican foods: green chile and chico soup, beef carnitas served on a gordita, corn on the cob with cilantro lime butter, pickled jalapeno cabbage slaw and bizcochitos (New Mexico’s official state cookie!) with cajeta. Demonstration Class, 3-hours.
November 28, 2015 – 10:00am
Tamales l (Tamales I):**
3 hours devoted to the art of making traditional tamales! Highlighting different tamale techniques -red chile pork, Southern Mexican chicken in banana leaf and blue corn calabacita (vegan). Accompanied by authentic New Mexican red chile sauce. Make your own tamales and enjoy the fruits of your labor at the end of class! Limited to 16 people.
September 13, 2015 – 11:00am
October 06, 2015 – 2:00pm
October 11, 2015 – 11:00am
November 07, 2015 – 3:00pm
November 15, 2015 – 11:00am
November 28, 2015 – 2:00pm
December 05, 2015 – 3:00pm
December 20, 2015 – 11:00am
December 27, 2015 – 2:00pm
December 31, 2015 – 10:00am
**Tamale class is one of our favorite suggestions for guests of Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast Santa Fe, NM– as our signature breakfast item “Pueblo Tamales” are traditional red chile pork tamales- a true Guest Favorite!**
Red chile ristras are strung pods of dried red chile frequently displayed near arches, front doors and windows throughout New Mexico. They are iconic in Santa Fe for decorating, especially during harvest months- September and October. Holidays also are popular times and are symbolic of a warm, inviting “welcome.” Ristras have practical uses as well. Red Chile is the featured ingredient of delicious sauces, marinade, and traditional New Mexican culinary dishes.
New Mexico’s arid climate and abundant sunshine provide ideal conditions for annual chile crops which on average produce 80,000 tons a year. Late summer, early fall are unique times when large chile pepper crops are harvested and frequently picked fresh, roasted and eaten as green chile. When the fruit is left on the plant a little longer to ripen, it turns a vibrant red. This causes the fruit to completely change its properties and then is dried, crushed and eaten. Red chile is often strung up into chile ristras to dehydrate in the sun.
Traditional methods were to sun-dry fruits by laying them out, however, contamination among birds and rodents has prompted people to begin tying them together in strings and hanging them on walls, etc. However, you can still see rooftops of homes, stores covered in red chile for drying purposes – especially in the little town of Hatch NM! Hatch is known at the Chile Capital of the World and rightly so. It grows more green chile than anywhere on earth and its crops are highly sought after by locals and tourists alike! As ristras dry their color darkens to a subtle rusty red color. At this point, they are ready to use in cooking or as decoration as ristras!
Dried Red Chile Ristra as Decorations:
Fall traditions of Santa Fe, New Mexico include red chile ristras adorning farmer’s markets and roadside stands around the state. Red Chile Ristras are commonly used for decoration as seen with backgrounds of adobe brown buildings. They are said to bring health and good luck! Interested in taking a good luck chile ristra home with you? We invite you to enjoy the thrill of fall Santa Fe travel with the purpose of purchasing a red chile ristras for yourself. They make great gifts too! A visit to Santa Fe in fall is much more advised as boxing and mailing isn’t a preferred method in handeling these beauties! Thier vibrant red color makes for a memorable statement for welcomed guests. New Mexico’s arid dry climate provides a perfect showcase for these lovely hanging chiles, however they might not do so well back home. If visiting Santa Fe from a more humid state, your ristra may need to be treated with lacquer before taking it home. Lacquer will help preserve the chile from moisture in the air and avoid messes later on. We use Aquanet hairspray on ours- even in Santa Fe to highlight the color, prevent flying pests from enjoying the chile, and simply to provide a longer hanging life!
Dried Chile in Cooking
Use dried red chile in cooking, either crushed as powder or rehydrated, blended, boiled and then strained to make red chile sauce (also just called “red chile”). Red Chile, along with green chile, is a staple in traditional New Mexican cuisine! Red chile sauces can be ladled over dishes, such as enchiladas and tamales; used as base for stews, such as posole; or marinade for meats, as with carne adovada. Green chile, however, is most often used in soups, dips and chowders. Regardless of how you choose to use chile- red or green- it’s a New Mexico tradition! Pueblo Bonito bed and breakfast is famous for thier “Pueblo Tamale” which is featured every morning for breakfast. How better to start your day than a red chile pork tamale with fresh fruit and coffee?
The Cross of the Martyrs is an easy, enjoyable, and often-overlooked historic monument site just northeast of downtown Santa Fe plaza. This iconic site is a great idea for guests of the Inn at Pueblo Bonito to enjoy during their Santa Fe vacation. The Cross of the Martyrs is excellent for an evening stroll, Sunday city view, or an anytime free history lesson of Old Santa Fe! The vantage point at the top offers dramatic views of The Plaza, the entire city and valley it’s located in, as well as a glorious sunset viewing! Among all of these views, the peek into the history of the oldest capital city in the United States is the best reason to make incorporate it into your Santa Fe to do list.
The walk or “hike” up to the top is not an arduous climb, but it does take moderate fitness. A consistent inclined brick walkway provides a series of switchbacks interspersed with steps that climb to the ridge above Paseo de Peralta in Hillside Park. The project was a gift to Santa Fe visitors made on it’s 375th anniversary (Santa Fe is currently over 400 years old as of 2015). Handrails and sure footing on the commemorative walkway are abundant with ample reasons to stop, read, and catch your breath; a series of display plaques offer interesting historical facts to provide momentary diversions from the climb. Remember that Santa Fe’s elevation is more than 7,000 feet above sea level.
The twenty chronologically ordered plaques give visitors a glimpse into the events shaping Santa Fe’s blending of primary cultures (Native American, Spanish and Anglo). The walk accurately paints a journey through history starting at 500 AD to our modern era. At the top of the walkway, a bricked plaza area reveals a steel cross – erected to honor the 21 Franciscan Friars killed in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.
The Pueblo revolt of 1680 was organized at the Taos Pueblo and led by Popé – a San Juan Pueblo medicine man- and was a mass insurrection by natives of the area pueblos against the Spanish interests. Popé became the ruler of all the pueblos of New Mexico for a dozen years as result of the successful revolt that killed 400 Spaniards and caused the survivors to flee to El Paso del Norte (El Paso, TX.) While the revolt did not remove the Spanish from the area permanently, it did cause changes in the way the Spanish dealt with the Pueblo Indians after 1692.
A cobblestone platform surrounds the cross. The site is a wonderful place for reflection, to take in the city views, or to take sunset photos of Santa Fe. Picnic tables are available nearby, offering the opportunity to take extra time to just relax and enjoy the beauty of the place and moment.
Getting to The Cross of the Martyrs from the Inn at Pueblo Bonito is simple: a guest would head to the Plaza, taking East Palace Avenue to Paseo de Peralta. From there, you would go left on Paseo de Peralta and follow it past Tommy Mascione park (to your right) and the Santa Fe Girls Club. Just past the entrance to the Girls Club is the entrance to the walkway on your right side. Legal parking places are at a premium but can be found on the street surrounding Tommy Mascione park.
On Fiesta weekend, a candlelit procession to The Cross of the Martyrs from Saint Francis Cathedral occurs after a special Mass. Fiesta weekend is celebrated the weekend after Labor Day in Santa Fe, NM.
compliments of Inn at Pueblo Bonito- Santa Fe, NM
Santa Fe is the capital of New Mexico and is the fourth-largest city in the state. Santa Fe is not only the oldest capital city in New Mexico, but also in all of the United States. It is also revered for its preservation of history and culture, making it one of the top ranked vacation destinations in the world.
“Santa Fe” means “holy faith” in Spanish. In 2014, the population was 68,298. The city was originally occupied by a number of Pueblo Indian villages with founding dates between 1050 to 1150. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900. A Native American group built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today’s Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west; the village was called Ogapoge. The Santa Fe River provided water to people and is a seasonal waterway which was a year round stream until the 1700s. In 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Today, a short walk from Inn at Pueblo Bonito brings visitors to the Santa Fe River to view hand carved life sized Santos made by local artisans.
Don Juan de Oñate led the first effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros, which lay north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo (aka San Juan Pueblo). New Mexico’s second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, however, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607. He called it La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi). In 1610, he made it the capital of the province, which it has almost constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States.
Except for the years 1680–1692, when, as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the native Pueblo people drove the Spaniards out of the area known as New Mexico, later to be reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas, Santa Fe remained Spain’s provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. In 1824 the city’s status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution. The Cross of Maryters, a memorial cross commemorating loss of life in 1680 Pueblo Revolt, is a favorite historic landmark for Santa Fe visitors to see and view a glorious Santa Fe sunset (15 minute walk from Inn at Pueblo Bonito- Santa Fe).
The Republic of Texas claimed Santa Fe as part of the western portion of Texas along the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, Texas, with the aim of gaining control over the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into the city to claim it for the United States, along with the whole territory of New Mexico. By 1848, the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled “Spain 1776”, showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule. American visitors saw little promise in the remote town. One traveler in 1849 wrote:
Did you know that the Spanish encountered over 100 Pueblo Indian Tribes while exploring five centuries ago? Did you know that from those 100-plus tribes, 19 are still separate, independent entities, speaking their own languages and maintaining distinct traditions in our state of New Mexico?
Did you know that some Pueblo communities (‘pueblo’ is the Spanish word for town) such as Taos (famous for its 1000-year-old, multi-story adobes), Acoma (glowing atop a red-rock mesa like a real-life City of Gold), and Santa Clara (home of the Puye Cliff Dwelling, which offers guided tours year-round)?
Did you know others like San Ildefonso or Santo Domingo allow visitors daily without tours? Or that others only welcome visitors on Feast Days, when costumed, body-painted dancers gather in their plazas to perform time-honored ceremonies? Native American culture and traditions are a big part of New Mexico history and southwest pride. Come join us to experience these ancient, intriguing and beautiful people who have a rich tradition to be shared with you in your visit to New Mexico.
Saturate yourself in rich historic tradition in our downtown Santa Fe bed and breakfast -the Inn at Pueblo Bonito! Our inn was orginally built in 1860 and was a West Texas Circuit Judge’s private estate. In fact, the only Indian bread oven or horno (“horno” is Spanish for bread oven) is located on the grounds of our historic bed and breakfast! So to create an authentic historic New Mexico travel experience, don’t just stay – experience traditional heritage at the Inn at Pueblo Bonito, Santa Fe.
Historic Santa Fe New Mexico- compliments of the Inn at Pueblo Bonito, Santa Fe.
Santa Fe is the capital of New Mexico and is the fourth-largest city in the state. Santa Fe is the oldest capital city in the United States and the oldest city in New Mexico. The meaning of Santa Fe is “holy faith” in Spanish. 2014 population was 68,298. The city was originally occupied by a number of Pueblo Indian villages with founding dates between 1050 to 1150. One of the earliest known settlements came sometime after 900, and is now known as Downtown Santa Fe. A Native American group built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today’s Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west. The village was called Ogapoge. The Santa Fe River provided water to people and is a seasonal waterway which was a year round stream until the 1700s. In 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers.
Don Juan de Oñate led the first effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo (aka San Juan Pueblo). New Mexico’s second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, however, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607. He called it La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi). In 1610, he made it the capital of the province, which it has almost constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States.
Santa Fe, 1846–1847
Except for the years 1680–1692, when, as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the native Pueblo people drove the Spaniards out of the area known as New Mexico, later to be reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas, Santa Fe remained Spain’s provincial seat until the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. In 1824 the city’s status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution.
The Republic of Texas claimed Santa Fe as part of the western portion of Texas along the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, Texas, with the aim of gaining control over the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into the city to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled “Spain 1776”, showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule.
American visitors saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote:
Today, Santa Fe is a testament to such preservation of rich history as well as a monument to the strength and wealth an environment gains through hardship; the City Different is a true oasis in the desert.
Thinking about a Santa Fe Vacation Travel trip? Inn at Pueblo Bonito, Santa Fe’s only 154 year-old historic bed and breakfast, has provided this complementary quick reference guide with Santa Fe’s most important contact information. Most current Santa Fe lodging deals can be found on our specials page! Our staff’s local expertise is just one of many reasons to book with our B&B, as you won’t find better insights on The City Different.
POPULAR NEW MEXICO AIRLINES
American Eagle/American Airlines (800) 433-7300
Continental Airlines (800) 523-3273
Delta Air Lines (800) 221-1212
Frontier Airlines (800) 432-1359
Southwest Airlines (800) 435-9792
US Airways (800) 428-4322
TO/FROM ALBUQUERQUE INT’L AIRPORT
Sandia Shuttle Xpress (505) 474-5696
Roadrunner Shuttle (505) 424-3367
TO/FROM SANTA FE AIRPORT
Capital City Cab Co. (505) 438-0000
Roadrunner Shuttle (505) 424-3367
Capital City Cab Co. (505) 438-0000
Santa Fe Trails (local) (505) 995-2001
NOTE: Greyhound no longer stops in Santa Fe, NM.
New Mexico Railrunner (866) 795-7245
Amtrak Reservations (800) 872-7245
Amtrak, Lamy Station (505) 466-4511- Lamy is a 15 minute drive south of Santa Fe. The Lamy Shuttle Service (505) 982-8829 will provide transportation to Pueblo Bonito b&b from the Lamy Station.
Advantage (800) 777-5500
Alamo (888) 426-3299
Avis (505) 471-5892
Beaver Toyota (505) 982-1901
Budget (505) 984-1596
Dollar (866) 319-6188
Enterprise (505) 473-3600
Hertz (505) 471-7189
Santa Fe Convention & Visitor Information (800) 777-2489
Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce (505) 988-3279
New Mexico Visitor Information (statewide) (505) 827-7336
Police, Fire, and Ambulance 911
Poison Control (800) 222-1222
Christus St. Vincent Hospital (505) 983-3361
UltiMed Urgent Care (505) 989-8707
Weather/Road Cond. (800) 432-4269
Time & Temperature (505) 473-2211
Inn at Pueblo Bonito– Santa Fe, New Mexico (800) 461-4599